Land Destruction in general is the ability to destroy a land in play. However, all cards which render a land useless, e.g. removing the land from the game or changing it's type to be useless to the controller, can be considered Land Destruction even though they are often grouped together as Mana Denial.
Red is the major color in land destruction due to it's passion to destroy physical objects and structure. Stone Rain is the bona fide standard land destruction spell capable of destroying any one land for three mana. Red also often has recently attained the ability to destroy multiple lands at the same time with spells such as Obliterate. Turning lands into a different kind of land by overriding it's type, e.g. Blood moon, is also present but much less frequent.
Green has a minor ability of destroying lands, usually costed with at least four mana and having another ability such as also being able to destroy enchantments or artifacts (Creeping Mold) or searching for land (Mwonvuli Acid-Moss). Green can also put lands in play on top of the library with spells such as Plow Under.
Black has the ability to destroy lands outright. These effects can also be costed at three mana (Rain of Tears) but are usually more color intensive. Black also has Enchantments which punishes players for tapping lands such as Pooling Venom and Desolation.
White only has the ability to destroy all lands in play via effects such as Catastrophe or Armageddon. However these have become much less frequent as the ability has been moved to red. White usually tries to protect lands or replace lands if they are destroyed.
Artifacts also sometimes have land destruction abilities, but they are usually much more pricey.
There are only few Land destruction effects on actual Lands and practically all of them have seen big tournament play due to it's easy inclusion into decks. Examples are Wasteland, Dust Bowl and Ghost Quarter.